과용시 신장에 해가 되는 식품과 수산염(Oxalic Acid) 채소 리스트


낮은 수산염을 함유한 야채는 칼슘의 흡수를 개선한다;


2004 년 영국 영양학 저널에 보고된 연구에서, 

높은 옥살산(시금치) 식사를 한 참가자의 마그네슘 흡수양은 약 27 % 이었고,

낮은 옥살산(케일) 식사를 한 참가자의 마그네슘 흡수양은 약 37 %이었다.

이 연구는 옥살산 함량이 낮은 음식을 먹음으로인해  

미네랄의 흡수, 특히 칼슘흡수를 증가시킬 수 있음을 보여준 것이다.

(마그네슘은 칼슘의 대사와 흡수를 돕는 미네랄이다.)


마그네슘과 칼슘의 관계:

이들 둘은 세포에서 함께 작동하는데, 마그네슘은 칼슘을 흡수하기 위한 기본적으로 중요한 것.

마그네슘에 의해 자극된 칼슘은 근육이완에 도움을 준다.

따라서, 마그네슘과 칼슘의 적절한 섭취는 생리통을 포함한 고통스러운 경련을 막을 수 있다(유진의 해설)



수산이 높은 야채를 생으로 많이 먹는 것은 피해야한다.


이런 재료는 살짝 데치거나 기름에 볶는 요리가 좋다.

옥살산 염은 식물의 품종과 수확 시간에 걸쳐 변화하는데,

USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) 에서는 

이들 식품목록을 발표해두고 매년 업데이트하고 있다.


수산이 든 많이 든 식품 목록(함량이 높은 순)


파슬리 Parsley   1.70

차이브 Chives   1.48

쇠비름 Purslane   1.31

카사바 Cassava(tapioca) 1.26

아마란스 Amaranth   1.09

시금치 Spinach   0.97

비트잎 Beet leaves   0.61

당근   Carrot   0.50


무 0.48

콜라드 0.45

마늘 0.36

브뤼셀 0.36

콩 (스냅) 0.36

상추 0.33

물냉이 0.31


0.24 ~ 0.10 항목 :

고구마

순무

치코리

셀러리

브로콜리

가지

콜리 플라워

아스파라거스

엔다이브

양배추


0.05 ~ 0.03 항목 :

완두콩

오크라

양파

순무잎

감자

토마토

양방 풀 나물

피망


0.02 ~ 0.01 항목 :

케일

오이

스쿼시(호박)

고수잎

옥수수 (달콤한)


출처/ Source(영어백과)







사진/ 파슬리와 쇠비름




수산을 감소 시키는 요리법은

삶기, 찌기, 발효하기가 있다.


2005 연구에서 끓인 음식에서 옥살산의 함량이 감소 한것으로 나타났다.

시금치를 수증기로 찌면 수산이 42 %로 감소하는 반면 

끓는물에 데치면  87 퍼센트에 의해 옥살산을 줄일 수있는 것으로 나타났다.

옥살산은 끓는 물에 쉽게 파괴된다.

수산채소는 끓는 물에 데쳐 그 물은 버리는 것이 좋다.

모든 어머니가 스프나 국물로 쓸 채소 삶은 물을 저장하지만,

이 경우(옥살산이 많이 함유한 채소)는 버리는 것이 좋다.


더 효과적인 전략은 옥살 레이트가 높은 음식은 발효하는 것이다.

신선한 채소의 효소를 유지하는 한편, 유익한 박테리아를 추가하고, 

비타민 B의 함량을 증가하기 때문에...(이건 내 마음에 드는 전략이군!)

채소를 끓이거나 스팀시에는 미네랄 손실이 되기 때문이다.


식품 미생물학의 2005 년 연구에서 

발효주스는 철분을 16배 증가 시킨 것으로 나타났다.

시금치와 같은 철 성분이 높은 야채는 주서에 갈아 마시는 것 보다는

발효주스로 마실때, 더 많은 철분을 흡수 할 수 있다는 것이다.

높은 함량의 수산채소를 섭취할때,

(일부 엽산 손실이 따르더라도) 옥살 레이트 수준을 줄이기 위해, 

살짝 데치거나 익힌 샐러드 혹은 발효하여 먹는 것이 좋다.



다음은 옥살산과 관련되며, 신장을 손상하는 식품에 관한 정보이다.


신장은 혈액에서 걸러낸

독소를 소변을 통해 내보내기위해 꾸준히 작동한다.


신장의 역할을 방해하는 식품을 지나치게 섭취하면

신장을 손상시킬 수 있다.


다음과 같은 식품은 과용을 피하고

적당히 섭취해야...


인산염 과다 식품 :

인산염은 혈관에 직접적인 영향을 미친다.

콜라와 냉동식품 등의 탄산청량음료와 가공 식품은 

혈액의 인산 수준을 높이는 것으로 악명이 높다.


수산 과다식품 :

옥살산 염은 수산 염 결석의 형성에 연루되어 있으며,

소변과 신장 손상의 흐름을 방해 할 수 있다.

각종 결석에 연류된 경험자들은

옥살산 과다식품(견과, 초콜렛, 일부채소) 과용을 피하는 것이 좋다.

신부전 단계에서는

바나나와 토마토 같은 칼륨이 많은 것도 피해야한다.


단것 :

당뇨병은 신장 손상의 일반적인 원인이다.


소금:

과도한 염은 혈압 상승시키고

이 과정에서 신장 손상의 원인이 된다.


고기류:

신장은 결과적으로 단백질 대사의 부산물인 

요소나 크레아티닌 등의 폐기물을 제거하는 기능을 한다.

고기는 단백질이 풍부하나 과용하면 신장이 폐기물을 처리하기에 너무 부담이 될수 있다.

조개를 포함한 동물성 단백질이 많은 식품은 요산을 과잉생산함으로서

신장 손상, 신장 결석이 발생할 수 있다.


출처 : Medindia , 영어위키피디아, 

영양적인 치료를 위한 처방((1983년 초판, 2010 5th 에디션, 미국)


번역 해설: CNC, 오가닉식탁 저자 황유진

(Updated 2/9/2016)





Reducing Oxalic Acid in Your Vegetables for More Calcium


Improving Calcium Absorption by Choosing Lower Oxalate Vegetables


In an interesting study reported in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2004, 

researchers compared magnesium absorption from high-oxalate and low-oxalate food: spinach and kale. 


Participants were given a meal of phytate-free white bread and either spinach or kale, cooked and puréed.

In the high oxalate spinach meal, study participants absorbed about 27 percent of the magnesium in the meal. 

In the low oxalate kale meal, participants absorbed about 37 percent of the magnesium. This study shows that you can increase your mineral absorption by eating foods lower in oxalic acid. We have no reason to think these findings would not apply to calcium as well.


This study suggests an important strategy: 

Simply, choose lower-oxalate vegetables over vegetables high in oxalic acid.


Vegetables High in Oxalic Acid

The big list includes foods you should avoid eating raw in large quantities. 

Beets are a popular choice in homemade raw vegetable juice, yet are high in oxalic acid. 

Carrots, parsley, and spinach tend to be eaten raw as well. 

Do not eat them in their raw form in great quantities; 

consider boiling them and tossing out the boiling water as an alternative to sautée. Boiled vegetables can then be browned in oil if you do not like the taste of boiled produce.


Parsley 1.70

Chives 1.48

Purslane 1.31

Cassava 1.26

Amaranth 1.09

Spinach 0.97

Beet leaves 0.61

Carrot  0.50


Radish 0.48

Collards 0.45

Garlic 0.36

Brussels sprouts 0.36

Beans(snap) 0.36

Lettuce 0.33

Watercress 0.31


0.24~0.10 items:

Sweet potato

Turnip

Chicory

Celery

Broccoli

Eggplant

Cauliflower

Asparagus

Endive

Cabbage


0.05~0.03 items:

Pea

Okra 

Onion

Turnip greens

Potato

Tomato

Parsnip

Bell pepper

Rutabaga


0.02~0.01 items:

Kale  

Cucumber

Squash

Coriander  

Corn(sweet)


Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxalic_acid#Content_in_food_items


The amount of oxalic acid in food samples is highly variable and, thus, so are oxalic acid food lists. 

Oxalate varies across foods, plant varieties, and picking times. 

To create this list, I used foods that appeared multiple times in these five sources: Brzezinski et al. 1998; Duke 1992; Hodgkinson 1977; Chai and Liebman 2005; USDA 1984.


Beets

Brussels sprouts

Carrots

Collard greens

Parsley

Spinach

Sweet potato

Swiss chard

Rhubarb

Reducing Oxalic Acid: Boil, Steam, or Ferment



A 2005 study found that boiling reduced the level of oxalic acid in food. 

In a test of foods high in oxalic acid, researchers found that boiling spinach reduces oxalic acid by 87 percent whereas steaming reduces it by 42 percent. 

In every vegetable studied, boiling is more effective than steaming.

 And there is a good reason: oxalic acid simply falls off of the food and into the water. 

You can then remove the oxalic acid by pitching the cooking water.

Based on this research, the best cooking strategy is to boil (or at least steam) the food and discard the cooking water. 

I know that all our mothers saved this liquid for soup or gravy, 

but you’ll want to toss the water of heavy offenders.


A more effective strategy is to ferment foods high in oxalates. 

This is my favorite strategy of course because you maintain the enzymes in the raw food, 

add beneficial bacteria to your diet, and increase the B vitamin content as I describe above. 

Boiling or steaming will also cause some mineral loss in the food.


In a 2005 study in Food Microbiology, researchers found that 

the soluble iron in the homemade vegetable juice in the study increased sixteen times with fermentation. 

What this means is that if you juice your own vegetable juice with a high iron vegetable like spinach and you ferment it, 

your body may absorb sixteen times more iron than it would have absorbed had you consumed the juice right out of the juicer.

The same study found that fermenting commercial juice increased the solubility of iron by seven times. 

So you can also buy a ready-to-drink juice and ferment it and digest about seven times the iron in the original juice.


But do not let oxalic acid drive you crazy. 

Spinach, for instance, is high in oxalates which bind to minerals but it is still a very good source of folate. 

If you eat a lot of a high-oxalate food, try to find a reasonable alternative for some of it. Not all raw vegetable juices need beets and carrots, for instance.

Try some wilted salads. 

To reduce oxalates (at the expense of some folate loss), 

steam spinach slightly and use as a base of a “wilted salad.”

Learn fermentation techniques.

 May 26, 2012.


Reference/

http://www.calciumrichfoods.org/reducing-oxalic-acid-vegetables/




Oxalic acid is a chemical substance that occurs naturally in certain types of foods. Oxalic acid in large quantities can have negative effects in the body because it can bind chemically with certain metals such as magnesium and calcium commonly found in foods.


Vegetables


Brussel sprout

(Photo: ilmoro100/iStock/Getty Images)

Vegetables high in oxalic acid that you should avoid include sweet potatoes, celery, spinach, Brussels sprouts, eggplant, chives, broccoli, beets, carrots, green peppers, eggplant, Romaine lettuce and celery. On the end of the spectrum, some vegetables that are low in oxalic acid are iceburg lettuce, squash, sprouts, cabbage, turnips, cauliflower and cucumbers.


Beverages


Two glasses of chocolate milk

(Photo: matka_Wariatka/iStock/Getty Images)

Beverages high in oxalic acid include beer, most types of tea, cocoa and chocolate milk and all other chocolate-based beverages. Drink plenty of fluids if you are on a low-oxalate diet, especially if you're attempting to pass kidney stones (a common cause of a doctor-prescribed diet that contains foods low in oxalic acid). Low oxalate drinks to consider include water, fruit juices, cola, ginger ale, cider and milk.


Fruit


Bunch of fresh rhubarb

(Photo: Mariia Komar/iStock/Getty Images)

Examples of fruits that are high in oxalic acid include rhubarb stems, figs, blueberries, raspberries, plums and tangerines. Low-oxalic acid foods include apples, lemons, limes, cherries and melons.


Grains


Spoonful of quinoa

(Photo: clemarca/iStock/Getty Images)

Among the grains that are highest in oxalic acid include amaranth, quinoa, wheat germ, oatmeal and whole wheat flour. Grains low in oxalic acid include white rice, wild rice and rye bread products.


Meat


Tofu cubes

(Photo: Ildiko Papp/iStock/Getty Images)

Most meats are not considered to be high in oxalic acid; however, there are certain meat substitutes, such as beans and tofu, that are high in oxalic acid that you should consider avoiding if you're on a diet restricting foods high in oxalic acid.



Legumes and Nuts


Peanuts in wood bowls

(Photo: Karen Sarraga/iStock/Getty Images)

The majority of legumes, nuts and seeds are oxalate-rich foods, including peanuts, cashews, almonds, pecans, sunflower seeds, black beans, garbanzo beans, kidney beans, black beans and Lima beans. Only a handful of legumes, nuts and seeds are low in oxalic acid, and these include lentils and water chestnuts.




Sauces, Spices and Condiments


Cinnamon powder and sticks

(Photo: eyewave/iStock/Getty Images)

Spices that have high amounts of oxalic acids are pepper, cinnamon, ginger and soy sauce. All sauces containing high amounts of cinnamon, pepper and ginger should be avoided as well. Some sauces and spices are safe if you're on a low oxalic acid diet, and these include mustard, oregano, salt, vinegar, vanilla, mayonnaise, butter and most vegetable-based oils.



References

Oxalic Acid Info: Oxalic Acid and Foods



Read more : http://www.ehow.com/list_6143677_foods-high-oxalic-acid.html


Foods That Could Harm Your Kidneys


Kidneys work to filter of blood.

in order to eliminate toxins from the body in urine.


High Phosphate Foods: 

Foods that are high in phosphates are known to 

have a damaging effect in the kidneys. 

Phosphates have a direct effect on blood vessels. 

Beverages like colas and processed foods like deli meats and frozen foods are particularly notorious in raising phosphate levels in the blood. 


High-oxalate Foods: 

Oxalates are implicated in the formation of oxalate stones, 

which could obstruct the flow of urine and damage kidneys. 

Therefore, if you are prone to developing oxalate stones, 

it is advisable to avoid foods like nuts, chocolates and spinach. 


In the later stages of kidney failure,

foods rich in potassium like 

bananas and tomatoes should be avoided. 


Sweets: 

Foods that are high is sugar content worsen other health problems like diabetes. Diabetes is a common cause of kidney damage.


Salt: 

Excessive salt raises blood pressure, 

which could lead to kidney damage in due course. 


Meats: 

The kidneys eliminate waste products like urea and creatinine in the urine, which are byproducts of protein metabolism. 

Meats especially red meats are rich in protein. 

Therefore, regular intake of high amounts of red meats results in a huge quantity of waste products, which may be too much for the kidneys to handle! Besides, animal proteins including shellfish result in the production of uric acid; excess uric acid can result in kidney stones, thereby damaging the kidneys.


Source: Medindia



Read more: Foods That Could Harm Your Kidneys http://www.medindia.net/news/healthinfocus/foods-that-could-harm-your-kidneys-115329-1.htm#ixzz3zhe37gn9


Magnesium and calcium work together at the cellular level. 

Magnesium is critical for your body to absorb the calcium it is taking in because 

it produces the hormone that your body needs to process it. 

Magnesium keeps your ingested calcium out of myosin(the protein that allows for muscle contraction).


Stimulated by magnesium, calcium gets released to help the muscles relax. 

The interaction of these two minerals helps explain the cause of spasms and painful cramps in our body, including women’s menstrual cramps. 

When either one of the two minerals is in short supply, 

or the two are in the wrong proportion, cramps take place.



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루밥(Rhubarb, 장군풀, 대황)

대황 (Rhubarb)/

사전적 주요의미

① 대황 ② 장군풀 ③ 중국·티베트산으로 하제·고미제 

rhu·barb [rúːbaːrb] 

장군풀: 잎자루는 소스로 만들거나 파이에 넣거나 설탕 절임을 함.

대황(大黃): 장군풀의 뿌리줄기; 중국·티베트산으로 하제·고미(苦味)제.

대황색, 담황색(citrine).

(구어) 와글와글, 왁자지껄: 무대에서 군중이 `rhubarb'를 연발하여 효과를 내는 데서.

(속어) 허튼 소리, 시시한 일; 

(미 속어) 격론, 말다툼, 싸움(row), (특히) 야구 시합 때의 항의, 트집; (미 속어) 저공에서부터의 기총 소사.

(the rhubarbs) (미 속어) 시골.



2014:06:30 19:12:05

유진의 오가닉 텃밭에서 자라는 루밥, 줄기는 마켓에서 파는 것보다 

붉지 않고 녹색이다. 뿌리를 심어 키운 것.



2014:07:13 11:40:16

6월에 한번 수확을 한후에 또 한차례 뿌리에서 줄기가 뻣어나오면서 

다육식물처럼 자라는 모습을 찍은 것.

겨울에는 땅에서 잠자고 봄이되면 재성장하는 뿌리를 심어 키우는 채소



루밥은 따뜻한 날씨에 성장하는 뿌리로 부터 자라는 채소.

대황은 일반적으로 야채로 간주되나, 식물의 잎 줄기는 설탕 파이 등 디저트에 사용되고나서

미국 뉴욕 법원은이 과일로 사용 된 이후, 과일로 규정하는 것이 1947 년에 결정했다. 

대황은 보통 늦은 봄부터 9 월까지 성장이 지속된다. 

미국의 오리건 주와 워싱턴주의 미국 북서부 지역에서 4 월 하순 ~ 5 월과 월 하순 ~ 7 월에 2회 수확한다.

용어 "대황"은 고대 그리스 RHA와의 barbarum의 조합; RHA는 식물과 강을 의미. 

대황은 1820 년에 미국 메인주와 매사추세츠주에 왔다. 




2012:05:17 08:22:17

야외에서 자라는 녹색줄기의 루밥.



2009:06:13 09:35:08


온실이나 상업성 루밥의 줄기는 더 붉다.



채소, 식물로서 묘사;

대황은 주로 잎자루를 통해 다육 줄기로 재배된다. 

대황 줄기의 색은, 얼룩덜룩 핑크, 크림슨 레드에서 밝은 초록색 등 다양하다.

온실에서 키운 루밥은 자연 야외의 대황보다 더 부드럽고 달콤하고 줄기는 밝은 빨간색.

대황 줄기는 시적인 표현으로는 "진홍의 줄기"로 설명되어 있다.

녹색 줄기의 대황이 재배에 더 강하지만 붉은 색의 줄기가 더 소비자들에게 인기있다.

줄기색상은 안토시아닌의 존재의 결과 및 대황의 생산 기술에 따라 달라진다.

잎 줄기는 선명하고 신랄한 맛 (셀러리와 유사) 을 가짐.

대황 뿌리는 호두 껍질과 유사한 갈색 염료를 포함하는데, 호두 나무가 생존하지 않는 북부 지역에서 사용된다. 


수제 대황 파이 및 요리에 사용

17 세기 영국에서 부터 설탕 조림이나 파이, 디저트에 사용

대황은 과일 주스에도 사용하고, 달기와 섞거나 딸기파이를 대체한 루밥(대황) 파이도 인기이다.

요리에, 줄기는 종종 1 인치 (2.5 cm) 조각으로 절단하여 설탕조림을 하거나 삶는다

계피 및 / 또는 육두구 등의 향신료 맛을 추가하고, 때로는 라임 주스 나 레몬 주스도 추가된다. 

슬라이스 줄기는 부드러운 때까지 삶거나  물을 첨가하지 않고 천천히 끓이는 법도 있다.

루밥은 펙틴의 추가와 함께 다른 과일, 딸기, 사과, 생강과 섞거나 줄기로 소스나 대황 잼을 만들기도 한다.

또한 과실주를 만들기 위해 사용될 수있다. 

19 세기 후반에 미국에서 알려진 된 이름으로 루밥은 파이 재료로 묘사된 속어로 사용;

미국의 작가 로라 잉걸스 와일더는 "파이식물"로 루밥을 의미

영국과 스웨덴, 서부 핀란드와 노르웨이, 아이슬란드등에서도 같은 요리가 지속됨.


의학 

중국의 전통 의학에서, 대황 뿌리는 완하제로 사용.

중세 아랍, 유럽의 처방에도 있다.

배변과 설사의 원이이 되는 글리코 시드, 모딘을 포함하여 변비치료에도 유용하다.

뿌리와 줄기는 모딘과 라인, 안트라 퀴논이 풍부한데,

이 물질은 다이어트의 원조가 되는 원료로 배변과 설사를 유도한다.

안트라 퀴논 화합물은 의약 목적으로 대황의 뿌리에서 채취하여 분말로 만든다.

구근에서는 당뇨의 혈당 수준을 낮추는 화합물이 함유(쥐실험); 카테킨, 글루코 시드 등을 포함한다. 


독성

잎이 많은 식물에 존재하는 신독성과 부식성 산성 옥살산등 유독 물질을 포함하고 있다.

매서운 추위에 의해 손상된 대황은 잎에서 마이그레이션 옥살산 함량이 높아져 먹을 수 없다. 

잎을 얼리면 안되는 채소겠군...by 유진의 해설.


소다와 잎을 요리할 경우 수용성 옥살 레이트를 생산하여 더 유독 할 수 있다.

소다수와 먹거나 빵만들때 쓰면 안되겠군...by 유진해설


줄기의  옥살산의 양은 잎에 비해 낮다.

잎에는 미확인 된 추가 독소를 포함하는 것으로 간주; 세나 배당체, 안트라 퀴논 배당체 등

잎은 아예 안먹거나 암튼 많이 먹지는 말것...by 유진해설


 번역 by 오가닉 식탁 저자, 황유진.



의사인 웨일박사에게 옥살산에 대한 질문/

옥살산을 피할수 있는 방법은?

시금치나 다른 야채는 미네랄의 흡수를 방해 할 수 옥살산 상당한 양의가 포함되어 있는데, 

당신은 옥살산 문제에 대해 어떻게 생각하십니까? 


답변 (2008년 1월 28일 게시) 

수산은 시금치, 대황(루밥) 등의 식물성 식품에서 발견되는 천연성분이다.

(독성이 있는 루밥잎을 먹지 않는 이유). 

나는 비트잎과 차드(근대)등에 나는 실랄한 맛과 냄새를 싫어한다.

옥살산의 농도는 대부분의 식물에서는  매우 낮지만,

시금치, 스위스챠드(근대), 비트잎에는 칼슘의 흡수를 방해할 만큼 충분히 있다.

예를 들어, 시금치의 칼슘은 익힌 시금치 반컵 당 115 ㎎들어 있지만,

옥살산의 간섭으로 칼슘의 양을 얻기 위해 16 컵의 생잎 또는 8컵의 익힌 시금치가 필요한데,

이는 요구르트 한 컵에 든 것과 같은 양이다.

그러나, 채소에 든 옥살산은 익히면 파괴되고, 

치즈등과 같은 다른 칼슘식품을 동시에 먹으면 칼슘의 흡수를 방해하지 않는다.

칼슘이 많은 음식은 다른 식품, 요구르트, 치즈와 우유,

오렌지 쥬스, 두유 및 강화된 곡물 등에서 섭취할수 있다.


나는 옥살산 때문에 시금치 등 잎이 많은 채소를 피하지 않을 것이다.

시금치는 영양학 적으로 엽산, 칼륨, 마그네슘,뿐만 아니라 비타민 K, 카로틴, 비타민 C와 

건강한 눈을 위한 루테인의 중요한의 훌륭한 소스이므로.


칼슘에 관한 한 여성은 하루 1,000 ~ 1,200 mg(하루 두번 식사시, 500~ 700mg의 칼슘영양제 포함)의 

일일 총 칼슘 섭취량을 목표로하는 것이 좋고,

남성의 경우, 만약 음식에서 칼슘을 전혀 못먹는다고 치면,

총 영양제의 500 밀리그램이내 섭취로 제한한다.  칼슘섭취는 남성의 전립선 암의 증가 위험과 관련되어 있다.


앤드류 웨일, 의학 박사


 번역 by 오가닉 식탁 저자, 황유진.


참고글/

http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/QAA400344/Avoid-Vegetables-with-Oxalic-Acid.html


채소에 든 옥살산이란?

첫째, 옥살산의 다량 섭취하는 경우 금속이 있음을 의미 , 

옥살산은 신체의 특정 필수 영양소를 박탈한다. 

정상적이고 건강한 사람의 경우, 옥살산 많은 양이 계속 장기적으로 소비되지 않은 한 위험하지 않다. 


두 번째 효과는 화학성으로 아주 작지만 매우 날카로운 옥살 레이트의 결정은, 몸을 자극하기에 충분한데,

이것의 가장 유명한 예​​는 신장 결석- 신장 결석의 80 %는 옥살산 칼슘 (calcium oxalate)에서 파생-


옥살산이 높은 식품의 위험정도는 사람마다 다르다.

옥살 레이트에 특별한 취약성을 가진 개인, 즉, 신장 질환, 통풍, 류마티스 관절염, 

만성 외음부 통증 (vulvodynia)을 가진 사람들은 섭취를 조심한다.

그러나 옥살산을 장기, 지속적, 비정상적으로 많은 양을 섭취하지 않는 한 건강한 이들에게는 일반적으로 위험하지 않다.


독성 

투명한 독성- 루밥의 실제 독성이 있는 것은 잎으로 높은 농도의 옥살산을 포함하는 유일한 재료이다. 

(잎의 십일파운드(약 5킬로)을 먹었을때.) 

거의 모든 다른 식품의 경우처럼 계속적인 섭취를 늘리지 않는 다면 즉각적인 독성을 나타내지 않는다.


영양

일부는 쉽게 칼슘과 결합하여, 다이어트에 옥살산식이 칼슘의 효과적인 섭취를 줄일 수 있다고 주장했다. 

그건 사실이지만, 알맞은 영양을 얻기위한 것이상의 의미는 크게 없다.

칼슘 섭취를 높이는 것에 두려움을 가질 필요도 없다.

높은 칼슘 섭취가 신장이나 방광 돌의 형성을 악화 있다는 믿음은 이제 거의 무용지물이다. 

어떤 연구는 옥살산과 칼슘 문제를 처리하기 위해  (우유를 마시는하는 등) 칼슘의 섭취를 제안한다

신장결석에 문제가 있는 사람이 칼슘을 섭취할시는 

다이어트에 칼륨의 알맞는 섭취로 신장의 돌 형성에 칼슘의 악영향을 최소화 할 수 있다.

마그네슘 섭취 또한 칼슘의 흡수를 향상하므로이 식품의 적절한 균형을 유지한다.


결석과 통풍 

옥살산으로 인한 신장결석은 매우 저조하며, 흡수후 배설이 용이하다. 

옥살산은 문제의 원인이되지 않으나, 섭취량을 조절해야 한다.

(당뇨병 환자가 설탕이 무해한 물질 임에도 불구하고 자신의 설탕 섭취량을 모니터링해야하는 것처럼).

옥살산을 주의해야 할 사람은 신장 질환과 신장 결석, 통풍, 류마티스 관절염, 

만성 외음부 통증 (vulvodynia)등 특정 형태의 환자를 포함한다. 

(통풍은 사지, 일반적으로 발에 유입되는 옥살 레이트와 같은 결정으로 인한 고통스러운 질병으로

신장염과 신장결석과 관련이 있다.)


 번역 by 오가닉 식탁 저자, 황유진.


해충 

전분이 저장된 뿌리는 배고픈 야생 동물이 봄에 캐내어먹을 수 있다. 


"대황 대황" 

왈라 ; 영국 극장 초 라디오 드라마에서, 단어 "대황 대황; rhubarb rhubarb" 이란 말은

백그라운드에서 이해할 수 없는 대화를 위미하는 것으로 반복사용하였고,

다른 제목으로는 1969 년 영화 rhubarb과 1980 리메이크 영화  rhubarb rhubarb이 있다.



Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) is a species of plant in the family Polygonaceae. 

They are herbaceous perennials growing from short, thick rhizomes.

 They have large leaves that are somewhat triangular, with long fleshy petioles. 

They have small flowers grouped in large compound leafy greenish-white to rose-red inflorescences.


In culinary use, fresh raw petioles (leaf stalks) are crisp (similar to celery) with a strong, tart taste. Most commonly, the plant's leaf stalks are cooked with sugar and used in pies and other desserts. 

A number of varieties have been domesticated for human consumption, most of which are recognised as Rheum x hybridum by the Royal Horticultural Society.


Rhubarb is usually considered a vegetable. 

In the United States, however, a New York court decided in 1947 that since it was used in the United States as a fruit, it counted as a fruit for the purposes of regulations and duties. 

A side effect was a reduction on imported rhubarb tariffs, as tariffs were higher for vegetables than fruits.


Rhubarb also contains glycosides—especially rhein, glucorhein, and emodin, which impart cathartic and laxative properties. 

It is hence useful as a cathartic in case of constipation.


Hothouse rhubarb is usually brighter red, more tender and sweeter-tasting than outdoor rhubarb.

In temperate climates, rhubarb is one of the first food plants harvested, usually in mid- to late spring (April/May in the Northern Hemisphere, October/November in the Southern Hemisphere, and the season for field-grown plants lasts until September.

 In the northwestern US states of Oregon and Washington, there are typically two harvests, from late April to May and from late June into July. 

Rhubarb is ready to consume as soon as harvested, and freshly cut stalks are firm and glossy.


The plant grows from the root at the return of warm weather. 

Rhubarb thrives in areas of direct sunlight and can successfully be planted in containers if they are large enough to accommodate a season's growth.


Rhubarb damaged by severe cold should not be eaten, as it may be high in oxalic acid, which migrates from the leaves and can cause illness.


The colour of rhubarb stalks can vary from the commonly associated crimson red, through speckled light pink, to simply light green. 

Rhubarb stalks are poetically described as "crimson stalks". 

The colour results from the presence of anthocyanins, and varies according to both rhubarb variety and production technique. 

The colour is not related to its suitability for cooking:

The green-stalked rhubarb is more robust and has a higher yield, 

but the red-coloured stalks are much more popular with consumers.


The term "rhubarb" is a combination of the Ancient Greek rha and barbarum; rha refers both to the plant and to the River Volga.

Rhubarb first came to the United States in the 1820s, entering the country in Maine and Massachusetts and moving westwards with the European American settlers.


A homemade rhubarb pie

Rhubarb is grown primarily for its fleshy stalks, technically known as petioles. 

The use of rhubarb stems as food is a relatively recent innovation, first recorded in 17th century England, after affordable sugar became available to common people, and reaching a peak between the 20th century's two world wars.


Commonly, it is stewed with sugar or used in pies and desserts, but it can also be put into savory dishes or pickled. 

Rhubarb can be dehydrated and infused with fruit juice. 

In most cases, it is infused with strawberry juice to mimic 

the popular strawberry rhubarb pie.


Rhubarb root produces a rich brown dye similar to walnut husks. 

It is used in northern regions where walnut trees do not survive.


For cooking, the stalks are often cut into 1 inch (2.5 cm) pieces and stewed (boiled in water). 

It is necessary only to barely cover the stalks with water, as rhubarb stalks contain a great deal of water on their own; 1⁄2 to 3⁄4 cup of sugar is added for each pound of rhubarb.

Spices such as cinnamon and/or nutmeg can be added to taste. 

Sometimes a tablespoon of lime juice or lemon juice is added. 

The sliced stalks are boiled until soft. An alternative method is to simmer slowly without adding water,

 letting the rhubarb cook in its own juice.


Strawberry rhubarb, dried

At this stage, either alone or cooked with strawberries or apples as a sweetener, 

or with stem or root ginger, rhubarb can be used to make jam. 

Other fruits, with the addition of pectin (or using sugar with pectin already added), 

can be added to rhubarb to make a variety of jams.


A sauce (to which dried fruit can be added near the end) can be made by cooking further, until the sauce is 

mostly smooth and the remaining discrete stalks can easily be pierced with a fork, 

yielding a smooth tart-sweet sauce with a flavor similar to sweet and sour sauce. 

This sauce, rhubarb sauce, is analogous to applesauce. 

Like applesauce, it is usually stored in the refrigerator and eaten cold. 

The sauce, after cornstarch mixed with water has been added to thicken it, 

may be used as filling for rhubarb pie, tarts, and crumbles. 

Sometimes stewed strawberries are mixed with the rhubarb to make strawberry-rhubarb pie. 

This common use has led to the slang term for rhubarb, pie plant, by which name it was more commonly known in the United States in the late 19th century. In her novella The First Four Years, American author Laura Ingalls Wilder refers to rhubarb as "pie plant". 

It can also be used to make a fruit wine.


In former days, a common and affordable sweet for children in parts of the United Kingdom and Sweden was a tender stick of rhubarb, dipped in sugar. It is still eaten this way in western Finland and Norway, Iceland and some other parts of the world. In Chile, Chilean rhubarb, which is only very distantly related, is sold on the street with salt or dried chili pepper, not sugar.


Medicine

In traditional Chinese medicine, rhubarb roots have been used as a laxative for several thousand years.

Rhubarb also appears in medieval Arabic and European prescriptions.


Chemistry

The roots and stems are rich in anthraquinones, such as emodin and rhein.

These substances are cathartic and laxative, explaining the sporadic use of rhubarb as a dieting aid. 

The anthraquinone compounds have been separated from powdered rhubarb root for medicinal purposes.


The rhizomes ('roots') contain stilbenoid compounds (including rhaponticin), 

which seem to lower blood glucose levels in diabetic mice.

It also contains the flavanol glucosides (+)-catechin-5-O-glucoside and (-)-catechin-7-O-glucoside.


Toxicity

Rhubarb flower

Rhubarb leaves contain poisonous substances, including oxalic acid, 

which is a nephrotoxic and corrosive acid that is present in many plants. 

Rhubarb damaged by severe cold should not be eaten, as it may be high in oxalic acid, 

which migrates from the leaves and can cause illness.


Q

Avoid Vegetables with Oxalic Acid?

I've heard that spinach, as well as some other vegetables contain significant amounts of oxalic acid, which can interfere with absorption of some minerals. 

What you think about the oxalic acid issue?


A

Answer (Published 1/28/2008)

Oxalic acid is a natural product found in spinach and some other plant foods including rhubarb. (Levels are so high in rhubarb leaves that we don't eat them - they're poisonous). 

It imparts a sharp taste to beet greens and chard that I don't like, 

especially in older leaves. 


Concentrations of oxalic acid are pretty low in most plants and plant-based foods, but there's enough

 in spinach, chard and beet greens to interfere with the absorption of the calcium these plants also contain. 


For example, although the calcium content of spinach is 115 mg per half cup cooked, because of the interference of oxalic acid, you would have to eat more than 16 cups of raw or more than eight cups of cooked spinach to get the amount of calcium available in one cup of yogurt.


However, the oxalic acid in vegetables is broken down in cooking.

It doesn't interfere with the absorption of calcium present in other foods, 

cheese for instance, that you might eat at the same time.


Calcium is available from many other food sources - in addition to yogurt, 

cheese and milk, it is also found in a wide variety of fortified foods including orange juice, soy milk and cereals.


I certainly wouldn't avoid spinach or other leafy greens because of the oxalic acid effect. Spinach has a lot to offer nutritionally: it's an excellent source of folic acid, potassium and magnesium, as well as vitamin K, carotenes, vitamin C and lutein, important for healthy eyes.


As far as calcium is concerned, 

I recommend that women aim for a total daily calcium intake of 1,000-1,200 mg per day from all sources,

including supplements of 500 to 700 mg of calcium citrate in two divided doses taken with meals.

For men, I now suggest aiming for 500 mg from all sources, and unless they are getting almost no calcium from food, 

men should not supplement with calcium – high intake has been linked to an increased risk of prostate cancer.


Reference/

http://www.drweil.com/drw/u/QAA400344/Avoid-Vegetables-with-Oxalic-Acid.html


Andrew Weil, M.D.


The LD50 (median lethal dose) for pure oxalic acid in rats is about 375 mg/kg body weight, 

or about 25 grams for a 65 kg (~140 lb) human. 

While the oxalic acid content of rhubarb leaves can vary, a typical value is about 0.5%,

so a rather unlikely 5 kg of the extremely sour leaves would have to be consumed to reach an LD50 of oxalic acid. 

Cooking the leaves with soda can make them more poisonous by producing soluble oxalates.

 However, the leaves are believed to also contain an additional, unidentified toxin,

which might be an anthraquinone glycoside (also known as senna glycosides).

In the petioles (stalks), the amount of oxalic acid is much lower, only about 2-2.5% of the total acidity, 

which is dominated by malic acid.


Pests

The rhubarb curculio, Lixus concavus, is a weevil. 

Rhubarb is a host, damage being visible mainly on the leaves and stalks, 

with gummosis and oval or circular feeding and/or egg-laying sites.

Hungry wildlife may dig up and eat rhubarb roots in the spring, 

as stored starches are turned to sugars for new foliage growth.


"Rhubarb rhubarb"

Main article: Walla

In British theatre and early radio drama, the words "rhubarb rhubarb" were repeated for the effect of unintelligible conversation in the background.

This usage lent its title to the 1969 film Rhubarb and its 1980 remake Rhubarb Rhubarb.


What Oxalic Acid Is

Oxalic acid is, of course, a chemical substance. At high concentrations, it is a dangerous poison, but such immediately toxic levels are not found in foodstuffs but rather in manufactures, such as some bleaches, some anti-rust products, and some metal cleaners (among other things). 

It is also a naturally occurring component of plants, and is found in relatively high levels in dark-green leafy foods

 (relatively high, though, is just that).


The chemical formula for oxalic acid is C2O2(OH)2. An acid (from the Latin acidus, meaning "sour") is typically a corrosive substance with a sharp, sour taste (but tasting an acid can be extremely dangerous, depending on its strength). Acids can range from very mild to very strong, and a given type of acid can be made weaker by diluting it (with, for example, water). 


Oxalic acid is inherently a strong acid: it is about 3,000 times stronger than acetic acid, which is the chemical name for the acid in ordinary vinegar (usually sold as around a 5% solution of acetic acid). 

Oxalic acid is so strong that it is widely used industrially for bleaching and heavy-duty cleaning, notably for rust removal.

 If oxalic acid is not heavily diluted--as it is in plants--it is quite dangerous to humans, being both toxic and corrosive.

The effects of oxalic acid in the human body, when ingested in foods, flow from its ability to combine chemically with certain metals commonly found in--and important to--the human body, such as magnesium and calcium. When oxalic acid combines with such metals, the result is, in chemical terms, a "salt" (table salt is just one specimen of the general class of salts); those oxalic-acid+metal salts are called oxalates. 


Since oxalic acid is not (so far as is known today) a useful nutrient, it is--like all such unneeded components of diet--processed by the body to a convenient form, those oxalates, and that byproduct is then eventually excreted--in this case, in the urine.



Assessing Oxalic-Acid Risks

The potential problems with oxalates in the human body are two. First, they mean that the metal in them--say calcium--has been made unavailable to the body; if a large amount of oxalic acid is ingested, the oxalates formed mean that the body is being to some degree deprived of certain essential nutrients. For normal, healthy persons, that risk is nearly trivial provided that great amounts of oxalic acid are not consumed on a continuing, long-term basis. The second effect is not chemical but mechanical: the crystals of oxalate, very small but very sharp, can be large enough to irritate the body. The chiefest and most famous example of this is kidney stones--probably 80% of kidney stones derive from calcium oxalate.


The extent to which foods high in oxalic acid are a potential health problem varies from person to person. Individuals with especial vulnerability to oxalates--notably those with kidney disorders, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, or certain forms of chronic vulvar pain (vulvodynia)--need to be careful about their intake of oxalic acid. Normally healthy people probably do not, unless, as noted before, they are consuming unusually large amounts of oxalic acid on a long-term continuing basis.


Despite the plethora of articles on the web, there is little hard data--many references are either from inherently unreliable sources, or seem to be parroting material they scarcely understand. Here is what we have gleaned.



Toxicity

Sheer toxicity--actual poisoning--from ingested oxalic acid is wildly unlikely. 

The only foodstuff that contains oxalic acid at concentrations high enough to be an actual toxicity risk is the leaves--not the stalks, which is what one normally eats--of the rhubarb plant. 

(And you'd need to eat an estimated eleven pounds of rhubarb leaves at one sitting for a lethal dose, though you'd be pretty sick with rather less.) 

For just about every other foodstuff, the risk--if any--is not immediate toxicity but a contribution to the development of oxalate crystals.



Nutrient Deprivation


Some have argued that by readily combining with calcium, oxalic acid in the diet reduces one's effective intake of dietary calcium. That is true, but the size of the effect is, for anyone getting decent nourishment, not meaningful. 

Nor need one be afraid to boost one's calcium intake. 

The belief that high calcium intake aggravates the formation of kidney or bladder stones has now been pretty well discarded, 

with studies showing that even intakes well above 2 g/day do not participate in stone formation in persons who do not otherwise have a stone problem. In fact, some studies suggest that calcium-loading (as by drinking milk) when ingesting foods high in oxalic acid helps the body to better absorb and dispose of the oxalic acid. 

Further, getting decent amounts of potassium in one's diet will also minimize the effects of calcium participation in stone formation for those who do have a problem. Worth noting in this connection is that magnesium improves the absorption of ingested calcium, so making sure to maintain a proper dietary balance of the two (often given as 2:1 calcium:magnesium) is also important.



Stones and Gout


It is now generally believed that the normal human body can dispose of oxalic acid at even relatively high dietary quantities without trouble; though it is very poorly absorbed (having no metabolic use), it is readily enough excreted. Trouble comes only to those unfortunate enough to have one or another condition--usually genetic in origin--that impairs, to a greater or lesser degree, their bodies' ability to process oxalic acid. (Though sometimes stones and gout are not related to oxalic acid at all.) For those folk, oxalic acid is not the cause of their problems, but it is the raw material for it, and they do indeed need to regulate their intake of it, just as diabetics need to monitor their sugar intake despite sugar normally being a harmless substance.


Those with a need for caution include sufferers from kidney disorders and kidney stones, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain forms of chronic vulvar pain (vulvodynia).


(Gout is a painful condition caused by crystals, such as oxalates, being deposited in the extremities, typically the feet; it is thus clearly related to kidney- and bladder-stone conditions.)




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