과용시 신장에 해가 되는 식품과 수산염(Oxalic Acid) 채소 리스트


낮은 수산염을 함유한 야채는 칼슘의 흡수를 개선한다;


2004 년 영국 영양학 저널에 보고된 연구에서, 

높은 옥살산(시금치) 식사를 한 참가자의 마그네슘 흡수양은 약 27 % 이었고,

낮은 옥살산(케일) 식사를 한 참가자의 마그네슘 흡수양은 약 37 %이었다.

이 연구는 옥살산 함량이 낮은 음식을 먹음으로인해  

미네랄의 흡수, 특히 칼슘흡수를 증가시킬 수 있음을 보여준 것이다.

(마그네슘은 칼슘의 대사와 흡수를 돕는 미네랄이다.)


마그네슘과 칼슘의 관계:

이들 둘은 세포에서 함께 작동하는데, 마그네슘은 칼슘을 흡수하기 위한 기본적으로 중요한 것.

마그네슘에 의해 자극된 칼슘은 근육이완에 도움을 준다.

따라서, 마그네슘과 칼슘의 적절한 섭취는 생리통을 포함한 고통스러운 경련을 막을 수 있다(유진의 해설)



수산이 높은 야채를 생으로 많이 먹는 것은 피해야한다.


이런 재료는 살짝 데치거나 기름에 볶는 요리가 좋다.

옥살산 염은 식물의 품종과 수확 시간에 걸쳐 변화하는데,

USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) 에서는 

이들 식품목록을 발표해두고 매년 업데이트하고 있다.


수산이 든 많이 든 식품 목록(함량이 높은 순)


파슬리 Parsley   1.70

차이브 Chives   1.48

쇠비름 Purslane   1.31

카사바 Cassava(tapioca) 1.26

아마란스 Amaranth   1.09

시금치 Spinach   0.97

비트잎 Beet leaves   0.61

당근   Carrot   0.50


무 0.48

콜라드 0.45

마늘 0.36

브뤼셀 0.36

콩 (스냅) 0.36

상추 0.33

물냉이 0.31


0.24 ~ 0.10 항목 :

고구마

순무

치코리

셀러리

브로콜리

가지

콜리 플라워

아스파라거스

엔다이브

양배추


0.05 ~ 0.03 항목 :

완두콩

오크라

양파

순무잎

감자

토마토

양방 풀 나물

피망


0.02 ~ 0.01 항목 :

케일

오이

스쿼시(호박)

고수잎

옥수수 (달콤한)


출처/ Source(영어백과)







사진/ 파슬리와 쇠비름




수산을 감소 시키는 요리법은

삶기, 찌기, 발효하기가 있다.


2005 연구에서 끓인 음식에서 옥살산의 함량이 감소 한것으로 나타났다.

시금치를 수증기로 찌면 수산이 42 %로 감소하는 반면 

끓는물에 데치면  87 퍼센트에 의해 옥살산을 줄일 수있는 것으로 나타났다.

옥살산은 끓는 물에 쉽게 파괴된다.

수산채소는 끓는 물에 데쳐 그 물은 버리는 것이 좋다.

모든 어머니가 스프나 국물로 쓸 채소 삶은 물을 저장하지만,

이 경우(옥살산이 많이 함유한 채소)는 버리는 것이 좋다.


더 효과적인 전략은 옥살 레이트가 높은 음식은 발효하는 것이다.

신선한 채소의 효소를 유지하는 한편, 유익한 박테리아를 추가하고, 

비타민 B의 함량을 증가하기 때문에...(이건 내 마음에 드는 전략이군!)

채소를 끓이거나 스팀시에는 미네랄 손실이 되기 때문이다.


식품 미생물학의 2005 년 연구에서 

발효주스는 철분을 16배 증가 시킨 것으로 나타났다.

시금치와 같은 철 성분이 높은 야채는 주서에 갈아 마시는 것 보다는

발효주스로 마실때, 더 많은 철분을 흡수 할 수 있다는 것이다.

높은 함량의 수산채소를 섭취할때,

(일부 엽산 손실이 따르더라도) 옥살 레이트 수준을 줄이기 위해, 

살짝 데치거나 익힌 샐러드 혹은 발효하여 먹는 것이 좋다.



다음은 옥살산과 관련되며, 신장을 손상하는 식품에 관한 정보이다.


신장은 혈액에서 걸러낸

독소를 소변을 통해 내보내기위해 꾸준히 작동한다.


신장의 역할을 방해하는 식품을 지나치게 섭취하면

신장을 손상시킬 수 있다.


다음과 같은 식품은 과용을 피하고

적당히 섭취해야...


인산염 과다 식품 :

인산염은 혈관에 직접적인 영향을 미친다.

콜라와 냉동식품 등의 탄산청량음료와 가공 식품은 

혈액의 인산 수준을 높이는 것으로 악명이 높다.


수산 과다식품 :

옥살산 염은 수산 염 결석의 형성에 연루되어 있으며,

소변과 신장 손상의 흐름을 방해 할 수 있다.

각종 결석에 연류된 경험자들은

옥살산 과다식품(견과, 초콜렛, 일부채소) 과용을 피하는 것이 좋다.

신부전 단계에서는

바나나와 토마토 같은 칼륨이 많은 것도 피해야한다.


단것 :

당뇨병은 신장 손상의 일반적인 원인이다.


소금:

과도한 염은 혈압 상승시키고

이 과정에서 신장 손상의 원인이 된다.


고기류:

신장은 결과적으로 단백질 대사의 부산물인 

요소나 크레아티닌 등의 폐기물을 제거하는 기능을 한다.

고기는 단백질이 풍부하나 과용하면 신장이 폐기물을 처리하기에 너무 부담이 될수 있다.

조개를 포함한 동물성 단백질이 많은 식품은 요산을 과잉생산함으로서

신장 손상, 신장 결석이 발생할 수 있다.


출처 : Medindia , 영어위키피디아, 

영양적인 치료를 위한 처방((1983년 초판, 2010 5th 에디션, 미국)


번역 해설: CNC, 오가닉식탁 저자 황유진

(Updated 2/9/2016)





Reducing Oxalic Acid in Your Vegetables for More Calcium


Improving Calcium Absorption by Choosing Lower Oxalate Vegetables


In an interesting study reported in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2004, 

researchers compared magnesium absorption from high-oxalate and low-oxalate food: spinach and kale. 


Participants were given a meal of phytate-free white bread and either spinach or kale, cooked and puréed.

In the high oxalate spinach meal, study participants absorbed about 27 percent of the magnesium in the meal. 

In the low oxalate kale meal, participants absorbed about 37 percent of the magnesium. This study shows that you can increase your mineral absorption by eating foods lower in oxalic acid. We have no reason to think these findings would not apply to calcium as well.


This study suggests an important strategy: 

Simply, choose lower-oxalate vegetables over vegetables high in oxalic acid.


Vegetables High in Oxalic Acid

The big list includes foods you should avoid eating raw in large quantities. 

Beets are a popular choice in homemade raw vegetable juice, yet are high in oxalic acid. 

Carrots, parsley, and spinach tend to be eaten raw as well. 

Do not eat them in their raw form in great quantities; 

consider boiling them and tossing out the boiling water as an alternative to sautée. Boiled vegetables can then be browned in oil if you do not like the taste of boiled produce.


Parsley 1.70

Chives 1.48

Purslane 1.31

Cassava 1.26

Amaranth 1.09

Spinach 0.97

Beet leaves 0.61

Carrot  0.50


Radish 0.48

Collards 0.45

Garlic 0.36

Brussels sprouts 0.36

Beans(snap) 0.36

Lettuce 0.33

Watercress 0.31


0.24~0.10 items:

Sweet potato

Turnip

Chicory

Celery

Broccoli

Eggplant

Cauliflower

Asparagus

Endive

Cabbage


0.05~0.03 items:

Pea

Okra 

Onion

Turnip greens

Potato

Tomato

Parsnip

Bell pepper

Rutabaga


0.02~0.01 items:

Kale  

Cucumber

Squash

Coriander  

Corn(sweet)


Source:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxalic_acid#Content_in_food_items


The amount of oxalic acid in food samples is highly variable and, thus, so are oxalic acid food lists. 

Oxalate varies across foods, plant varieties, and picking times. 

To create this list, I used foods that appeared multiple times in these five sources: Brzezinski et al. 1998; Duke 1992; Hodgkinson 1977; Chai and Liebman 2005; USDA 1984.


Beets

Brussels sprouts

Carrots

Collard greens

Parsley

Spinach

Sweet potato

Swiss chard

Rhubarb

Reducing Oxalic Acid: Boil, Steam, or Ferment



A 2005 study found that boiling reduced the level of oxalic acid in food. 

In a test of foods high in oxalic acid, researchers found that boiling spinach reduces oxalic acid by 87 percent whereas steaming reduces it by 42 percent. 

In every vegetable studied, boiling is more effective than steaming.

 And there is a good reason: oxalic acid simply falls off of the food and into the water. 

You can then remove the oxalic acid by pitching the cooking water.

Based on this research, the best cooking strategy is to boil (or at least steam) the food and discard the cooking water. 

I know that all our mothers saved this liquid for soup or gravy, 

but you’ll want to toss the water of heavy offenders.


A more effective strategy is to ferment foods high in oxalates. 

This is my favorite strategy of course because you maintain the enzymes in the raw food, 

add beneficial bacteria to your diet, and increase the B vitamin content as I describe above. 

Boiling or steaming will also cause some mineral loss in the food.


In a 2005 study in Food Microbiology, researchers found that 

the soluble iron in the homemade vegetable juice in the study increased sixteen times with fermentation. 

What this means is that if you juice your own vegetable juice with a high iron vegetable like spinach and you ferment it, 

your body may absorb sixteen times more iron than it would have absorbed had you consumed the juice right out of the juicer.

The same study found that fermenting commercial juice increased the solubility of iron by seven times. 

So you can also buy a ready-to-drink juice and ferment it and digest about seven times the iron in the original juice.


But do not let oxalic acid drive you crazy. 

Spinach, for instance, is high in oxalates which bind to minerals but it is still a very good source of folate. 

If you eat a lot of a high-oxalate food, try to find a reasonable alternative for some of it. Not all raw vegetable juices need beets and carrots, for instance.

Try some wilted salads. 

To reduce oxalates (at the expense of some folate loss), 

steam spinach slightly and use as a base of a “wilted salad.”

Learn fermentation techniques.

 May 26, 2012.


Reference/

http://www.calciumrichfoods.org/reducing-oxalic-acid-vegetables/




Oxalic acid is a chemical substance that occurs naturally in certain types of foods. Oxalic acid in large quantities can have negative effects in the body because it can bind chemically with certain metals such as magnesium and calcium commonly found in foods.


Vegetables


Brussel sprout

(Photo: ilmoro100/iStock/Getty Images)

Vegetables high in oxalic acid that you should avoid include sweet potatoes, celery, spinach, Brussels sprouts, eggplant, chives, broccoli, beets, carrots, green peppers, eggplant, Romaine lettuce and celery. On the end of the spectrum, some vegetables that are low in oxalic acid are iceburg lettuce, squash, sprouts, cabbage, turnips, cauliflower and cucumbers.


Beverages


Two glasses of chocolate milk

(Photo: matka_Wariatka/iStock/Getty Images)

Beverages high in oxalic acid include beer, most types of tea, cocoa and chocolate milk and all other chocolate-based beverages. Drink plenty of fluids if you are on a low-oxalate diet, especially if you're attempting to pass kidney stones (a common cause of a doctor-prescribed diet that contains foods low in oxalic acid). Low oxalate drinks to consider include water, fruit juices, cola, ginger ale, cider and milk.


Fruit


Bunch of fresh rhubarb

(Photo: Mariia Komar/iStock/Getty Images)

Examples of fruits that are high in oxalic acid include rhubarb stems, figs, blueberries, raspberries, plums and tangerines. Low-oxalic acid foods include apples, lemons, limes, cherries and melons.


Grains


Spoonful of quinoa

(Photo: clemarca/iStock/Getty Images)

Among the grains that are highest in oxalic acid include amaranth, quinoa, wheat germ, oatmeal and whole wheat flour. Grains low in oxalic acid include white rice, wild rice and rye bread products.


Meat


Tofu cubes

(Photo: Ildiko Papp/iStock/Getty Images)

Most meats are not considered to be high in oxalic acid; however, there are certain meat substitutes, such as beans and tofu, that are high in oxalic acid that you should consider avoiding if you're on a diet restricting foods high in oxalic acid.



Legumes and Nuts


Peanuts in wood bowls

(Photo: Karen Sarraga/iStock/Getty Images)

The majority of legumes, nuts and seeds are oxalate-rich foods, including peanuts, cashews, almonds, pecans, sunflower seeds, black beans, garbanzo beans, kidney beans, black beans and Lima beans. Only a handful of legumes, nuts and seeds are low in oxalic acid, and these include lentils and water chestnuts.




Sauces, Spices and Condiments


Cinnamon powder and sticks

(Photo: eyewave/iStock/Getty Images)

Spices that have high amounts of oxalic acids are pepper, cinnamon, ginger and soy sauce. All sauces containing high amounts of cinnamon, pepper and ginger should be avoided as well. Some sauces and spices are safe if you're on a low oxalic acid diet, and these include mustard, oregano, salt, vinegar, vanilla, mayonnaise, butter and most vegetable-based oils.



References

Oxalic Acid Info: Oxalic Acid and Foods



Read more : http://www.ehow.com/list_6143677_foods-high-oxalic-acid.html


Foods That Could Harm Your Kidneys


Kidneys work to filter of blood.

in order to eliminate toxins from the body in urine.


High Phosphate Foods: 

Foods that are high in phosphates are known to 

have a damaging effect in the kidneys. 

Phosphates have a direct effect on blood vessels. 

Beverages like colas and processed foods like deli meats and frozen foods are particularly notorious in raising phosphate levels in the blood. 


High-oxalate Foods: 

Oxalates are implicated in the formation of oxalate stones, 

which could obstruct the flow of urine and damage kidneys. 

Therefore, if you are prone to developing oxalate stones, 

it is advisable to avoid foods like nuts, chocolates and spinach. 


In the later stages of kidney failure,

foods rich in potassium like 

bananas and tomatoes should be avoided. 


Sweets: 

Foods that are high is sugar content worsen other health problems like diabetes. Diabetes is a common cause of kidney damage.


Salt: 

Excessive salt raises blood pressure, 

which could lead to kidney damage in due course. 


Meats: 

The kidneys eliminate waste products like urea and creatinine in the urine, which are byproducts of protein metabolism. 

Meats especially red meats are rich in protein. 

Therefore, regular intake of high amounts of red meats results in a huge quantity of waste products, which may be too much for the kidneys to handle! Besides, animal proteins including shellfish result in the production of uric acid; excess uric acid can result in kidney stones, thereby damaging the kidneys.


Source: Medindia



Read more: Foods That Could Harm Your Kidneys http://www.medindia.net/news/healthinfocus/foods-that-could-harm-your-kidneys-115329-1.htm#ixzz3zhe37gn9


Magnesium and calcium work together at the cellular level. 

Magnesium is critical for your body to absorb the calcium it is taking in because 

it produces the hormone that your body needs to process it. 

Magnesium keeps your ingested calcium out of myosin(the protein that allows for muscle contraction).


Stimulated by magnesium, calcium gets released to help the muscles relax. 

The interaction of these two minerals helps explain the cause of spasms and painful cramps in our body, including women’s menstrual cramps. 

When either one of the two minerals is in short supply, 

or the two are in the wrong proportion, cramps take place.



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